The laser welding machine has the advantages are simple operation, welding seam beautiful, fast welding speed and no consumables. Fiber Laser Welding Services by Accumet include welds of Aluminum, Stainless Steel, Kovar, Invar, Metal Foils, and alloys. Goods quality welds can be achieved for the most alloys by cleaning the surfaces prior to welding and by providing adequate inert gas shielding of the weld pool. Compressed air contains moisture and oil contaminates. Of course, this by no means implies that laser welding is not an excellent choice for joining these materials. However, aluminum poses difficulty in welding because of three main properties: (1) thermal conductivity, (2) surface reflectivity to infrared and near infrared laser radiation, and (3) characteristics of the molten alloy including low viscosity and volatility of low boiling point alloying elements (e.g. This small heat affected zone is essential as aluminumâs high thermal conductivity tends to result in heat traveling throughout the work piece, either melting too much material or deforming the entire part. Alumi num is one of the easiest metals to penetrate with an electron beam. Laser welding has been used in the automotive industry for joining of aluminum components such as frames, roofs, doors, deck lids, steering columns, wheel rims, and fuel filters, to name just a few. Porosity is a less critical defect in laser welds than solidification cracking. The standard technique when welding crack prone alloys is to use a filler wire or shim made from a more weldable alloy (such as 4047) in order to achieve quality weld joint. The process is very quick and clean with no oxide layers and a low electrical resistance. Hydrogen can originate from lubricants, moisture in the atmosphere and surface oxides, or the presence of hydrogen in the parent material. Continuous wave laser welding is used for deep penetration welds, and is often referred to as keyhole welding. Choice of cover gas is generally dependent on the type of laser and its power rating as the use of the wrong cover gas can result in access plasma generation and/or changes to the properties of the welded materials. Find out about applications, materials, and techniques as they relate to the work you do. 209 W/m K) and low melting point (1,221Â°F/660.3Â°C) make it such that only fusion welding processes can be used to weld it. If a lubricant is used during any of these pre-weld operations, complete removal of the lubricant prior to welding is essential to avoid bad welds. There are several different types of lasers that work well with aluminum, and often the use of a cover gas is prudent. Machining methods that leave a ground or smeared surface should be avoided.Â For example, a band saw willÂ leaveÂ metal smeared along the path of the blade.Â This problem can be overcome by filing or machiningÂ the joint edge post cutting. The amount of heat applied and the location to which it is applied must be controlled very precisely. The poor coupling of the laser energy is due in part to the high density of free electrons in the solid, making aluminum one of the best reflec tors of light. Weld profiles can be manipulated into asymmetry, such as increasing the penetration on one side of the weld joint. Sales (+86)188 2695 0666 Email: [email protected]
That's the name of our monthly newsletter. The improvement is due to the filler material, which provides reinforcements to the weld zone by eliminating undercut from the top or root bead. Materials that can be welded: Mild steel, carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, coated steel, copper, and titanium. It requires a particularly bright laser to get energy into the part without doing more harm than good (or reflecting back into your peepers). Laser welding is widely used to join aluminum and its alloys. Clean all wire brushes and cutting tools frequently. However, cleaned correctly and handled correctly, aluminum welds well with a laser. Hydrocarbon residue on aluminum parts can generally be removed using acetone or alcohol based solvents. Aluminum alloys, are lightweight, possess good thermal and electrical conductivity, and are relatively inexpensive to work with. When cleaning a surface with solvents, use clean cloth such as cheese cloth or paper towels.Â Do not use shop rags thatÂ may be contaminated with oil residue. Aluminum alloys with manganese can only be processed to a limited extent by laser welding. Contaminates can easily be transferred to a part and then pushed under the surface of the joint. Here, the welding of 100 µm thick aluminum foils in lap joints is investigated. On the other hand, it is one of the most difficult to melt with a laser. Reflectivity is the most critical challenge with laser welding. In the past aluminumâs high reflectivity was a problem for laser welding. Higher mechanical strength aluminum-steel weld joints has been demonstrated with TIG, MIG, electronic beam, and laser welding. Because heat is applied at a constant rate, and the part is not subject to the constant heating and cooling of a pulsed laser, continuous wave weldingÂ may be better suited for some of the more crack sensitive alloys of aluminum. Fusion welding processes, such as MIG, TIG, Laser, and Electron Beam, generate intense heat in small area to melt the material in the desired weld area. Nd:YAG (Neodymium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet). The amount of pre-weld preparation is largely dependent on the condition of the aluminum parts to be welded, and that is generally dependent on the storage conditions and the cleanliness of the machine procedures used to make the part thus far. Deep-penetration welding allows for a single weld to replace multiple welds in different joint designs. All rights reserved. There are four main categories of lasers that are suitable for welding aluminum: All of these technologies are capable of producing high quality aluminum welds, and the method to be used is often dependent on operational costs rather than weld quality. The near infrared 1070 nm wavelength has definite advantages over the incumbent CO 2 laser technology due to the lower reflectivity of metals at this wavelength. One noteworthy application is laser edge-fillet welding of the aluminum doors on the BMW 7 Series luxury sedans (Figure 3). Laser Stir Welding results in largely defect free joints, with no hot cracking, porosity or solidification cracks. Aluminum Laser Welding Machine Manufacturers, Factory, Suppliers From China, We've been confident that there'll become a promising future and we hope we can have long lasting cooperation with consumers from all over the world. The result was a range of laser and processing parameters that produce good quality welds for different aluminum alloys. If a part must be blown off, use a bottled gas such as nitrogen or argon. We never spam, we never sell our mailing list. Square edges and good fit-up are also necessary. The melting point of aluminum oxide is approximately 3x the melting point of pure aluminum, which can result in particles of aluminum oxide contaminating the weld and leading to porosity issues. Addition of an appropriate filler wire reduces cracking in crack sensitive alloys such as the 2xxx and 6xxx series alloys. The laser welding cell paired with creative and unique part design methods give our customers the perfect tools to reduce cost and improve part quality. The present investigation was mainly concerned with characteristics of autogeneous laser butt welding of 2âmm thickness nonheat treatableAA5052-H12,AA5083-H12 and 2âmm, 3âmmthickness heat treatableAA6061-T6aluminum alloys. Good weld fixturing is necessary â¦ This joint configuration is especially suitable due to aluminumâs high shrinkage rate. It is based on keyhole or penetration mode welding. Air gaps between pieces to be Lap Joint welded severely limit weld penetration and/or feed speed. In micro-joining, adjusting comparatively small gaps is a major challenge. A wide variety of laser welding of aluminum options are available to you, such as warranty of core components, local service location, and key â¦ Each pulse creates an area of melted material, the work piece is then moved slightly and another pulse is applied, resulting in a series of overlapping welds create a continuous bead. FIGURE 1 shows the effect of laser power (2â5.3kW), welding speed, and the gap between the sheets on weld porosity formation with a fillet edge welding configuration using a filler wire of AA4043 (5.3% Si) . Oxidation issues can lead to contamination and porosity problems. Crack free and porosity free butt weld of 2 mm thick Al6061 and Al5052. Continuous wave lasers typically feed at speeds of 25 to 100 inches per minute in order to not overheat the parts. The slight top bead undercut (concavity) can be eliminated by welding with an appropriate filler material such as Al4043 or Al4047 wire. The cover of a TRUMPF TruFlow laser resonator being laser welded in a laser welding cell in our Farmington, CT production facility. Joint Considerations. Each weld area created by a pulse cools quickly, which minimizes the amount of heat in the surrounding material, which in turn limits how hot the part might become, which in turn minimizes melting and distortion of the part. Call us at +1.631.495.1485â¬ or use the links below. Patterns can be programmed to compensate for large gaps in weld joints and other potentially problematic weld geometry problems. High-brilliance lasers allow fast, low-heat deep penetration laser welding to produce narrow seams even in metal foils. This is often achieved mechanically, using stainless steel wire brushes, grinding, filing or scraping to remove any oxides. Major Challenge of Laser Welding. Metal inert gas (MIG) welding, also referred to as gas metal arc â¦ A fit-up tolerance of 15% of the material thickness is desirable. Laser stir welding is a process in which a continuous beam laser is oscillated at a relatively high frequency, which causes a stirring action within the molten weld pool – hence the term âstir welding.â The result is a manipulation of the weld pool/vapor cavity, which changes some key characteristics of the weld. 4 Laser beam welding has established itself a solution for welding of aluminum, thanks to the fact that the beam has high energy density but deliver a low overall heat input. Laser welding uses laser as a high-energy density light source, which has the characteristics of fast heating and instant solidification. When laser welding aluminum, only an aluminum-manganese alloy can be welded without filler material. Because aluminum doesnât change in appearance as it approaches its melting point, welding processes which require visual judgment of material readiness can be unreliable. Modulation controls heating and cooling of the weld metal which reduces the freezing range of the weld metal and minimizes the tendency for solidification cracking. Please contact us today for more information. This applies in particular for aluminum-silicon compounds. Clean the surface before welding – the main cause of porosity is the evolution of hydrogen gas during weld metal solidification. Always use a new or recently cleaned stainless steel brushes to clean a joint.Â Older brushes sitting around a workÂ bench may contain oils and other contaminates.Â Do not use brushes that have been used on other metals as metal flakes can be carried on the brush bristles, then imbedded under the surface of the aluminum during brushing. Use a stainless steel wire brush to clean a joint only after solvent cleaning.Â Wire brushing prior may imbed hydrocarbons and other contaminates in the aluminum. Laser Welding has wide variety of applications in various industries. Improved control of the profile and geometry of the weld – as an example, joints can be designed with more width at the root of the weld, which can be very useful for Lap/Thru-/Blind welds. Upon formation of a laser weld pool in aluminum, the shiny surface of the molten metal reflects much of the energy of the light beam. It can also be combined with conventional welding processes, and can be used for soldering. Immediately afterwards, the continuous fiber laser welding technology also entered the market area of aluminum applications. The welding copper to aluminium process uses our redENERGY 70W EP-Z Laser to create 3 spot welds, taking approximately 1 second, to produce an extremely strong hold between the Copper and Aluminium. Instead, it means that welding processes must be designed with these factors in mind. The process works by focusing the laserâ beams light and energy on the target part and joint. Laser welding; Laser welding A laser beam can join metal in different ways â it can join workpieces at the surface or create deep weld seams. To avoid oxide films and hydrocarbon contamination, aluminum to be laser welded must be thoroughly cleaned. Gaps of > 80% of the foil thickness were bridged. So, how do we ensure a reliable, robust laser process when welding aluminum alloys? Hydrocarbon contamination of aluminum during storage and preparation of the material can cause problems when welding. Our engineering staff is your resource. If grinding cannot be avoided, use a course disk. Alibaba.com offers 11,044 laser welding of aluminum products. The wide and growing use of aluminum alloys is a result of its defining properties which include: Density – aluminum is the lightest of all ordinary metals. Sheared edges are acceptable provided they are straight and square. However, due to the high reflectivity and good thermal conductivity of aluminum alloy and the shielding effect of plasma, some defects â¦ Modulated output from continuous wave lasers can also help with cracking and porosity . Alternatively, there are chemical cleaning methods utilizing immersions in caustic solutions and water that are effective at removing aluminum oxide. Automated methods, such as Laser and Electron Beam, which use computers to control feed rate, power, and weld location, offer more precise and consistent weld quality. In particular, the experiment aims to evaluate the possibility of welding the aluminum and steel using nanosecond laser sourceâas well However, for welds with deeper penetration in crack prone aluminum alloys, weâve had a lot of success using our proprietary Laser Stir Welding technique. Diffusion welding is a solid-state welding process that produces coalescence of the two metals by the application of pressure and elevated temperatures. Laser welding requires a fairly precise joint in order to maintain permissible gap and mismatch. Hydrocarbon contamination must be removed before abrading the surface to remove aluminum oxide. Prima Power Laserdyne is a wholly owned business unit of, Porosity; some cracking depending upon Mg content. Avoid grinding process if possible. Its relatively high thermal conductivity (approx. Laser welding requires good joint fit up in regard to permissible gap and a low level of mismatch. Laser-beam welding (LBW) is now considered to be a viable fusion joining process for aluminum with the advent of commercially available, stable, high-power laser systems. Good weld fixturing is necessary so that the laser beam can be placed accurately. About 11% of these are Laser Welders, 0% are TIG Welder, and 0% are Other Arc Welders. Welded medical devices, surgical tools, dental, plastics. With this in mind, there is keen interest in the use of laser welding to produce lightweight and economical vehicle structures in aluminium. The main tenets of these procedures are summarized below. Laser beam welding is one of our most popular services for welding aluminum. Date Published: Apr-2001 Fiber lasers are now widely used for welding of a very wide range of thicker metals. Aluminum oxide can affect laser welding: oxide films can change the reflectivity of the parts surface, which negatively impacts the amount of laser energy making it to the base metal. © 2020 by EB Industries. Laser beam energy can be applied to the work piece either as a series of pulses, as a continuous beam, or in a laser stir weld configuration. Laser welding is widely used to join aluminum and its alloys. Because of aluminum`s high reflectivity, effective coupling of the laser beam and aluminum requires a relatively high power density. Welding in thin stainless steel plate, iron plate, aluminum plate and other metal materials can perfectly replace the traditional argon arc welding and electric welding â¦ GMAW (MIG) Services. You will find aluminum and its alloys in industries as varied as aerospace and sporting goods and electronics and consumer packaging. We are experts north of Boston, Massachusetts in the field of welding steel and aluminum together, and other dissimilar metals or hybrids and alloys. Laser beam welding is one of our most popular services for welding aluminum. In this study, the inï¬uence of the laser powers on welding these dissimilar metals was taken into account. The likelihood of laser welds to suffer solidification cracking can limit the welding speed, parent material composition or weld penetration depth that is possible when laser welding both steels and aluminium. Material on the leading edge of the laser beam melts as the trailing edge cools. Diversity of alloys (see Table below for a summary of the main aluminum alloys). A steady beam of laser light is applied to the work piece, which is then moved beneath the beam. All other alloys can only be laser welded with the help of additives. The process is ideal for fast, clean welds. More precise control of the weld pool for increased keyhole stability. The decision to use a particular method is dependent on the application, the properties of the materials, etc. The filler material also replaces lost alloying elements and improves tolerance to the joint fit up. Mg, Zn). For round welds in aluminum, no gap can be tolerated unless inert gas coverage can be maintained over the entire weld area. OR Laser welders offer precise and expert Laser welding services for a variety of industries including critical applications like medical and dental tools made of aluminum or steel. Avoid using compressed shop air to blow off debris from the area of the joint. As shown in our report on laser cleaning for welding, laser cleaning significantly reduces the number and the size of porosities in the weld joints. Welding Aluminum Alloys To Other Alloys. Aluminum can be a difficult material to weld. However, each process has slightly different characteristics which can make some types of lasers preferable for certain applications, joint configurations, and aluminum alloy combinations. Stainless steel wire brush any metal surfaceÂ that has been etched.Â By-product residuals from etching can alter the chemical composition of the weld pool. The heat affected zone is minimized and weld penetration can range up to 0.25â in aluminum. It was found that all the investigated alloys showed tendencies for porosity and solidification cracking,particulaâ¦ Ability to be recycled indefinitely without losing any of its intrinsic qualities. As little as a decade ago, laser welding aluminum was considered to â¦ Another challenge of welding aluminum involves the formation of oxide film on the work surface. [4, 5] These and other material related difficulties can lead to issues with weld and heat affected zone cracking, degradation in the mechanical properties, and inconsistent welding performance. Medical Devices: a Study in Collaboration, Extraordinary Demands in Extraordinary Times. A pulsed laser is exactly that: the beam is switched on and off at a very high rate (10-1000 hz) such that the energy is applied to the work piece is a series of separate bursts. The process is frequently used in high volume applications using automation, as in the automotive industry. Laser welding also has one of the highest initial investments, tooling costs, and weld joint fit-up requirements These must be accounted for when selecting laser welding as the joining method for your production process. weld the battery case and tab during the packing process. In most cases, oxide film must be removed either by mechanical or chemical means prior to welding. However, with the evolution of high-power, good-beam-quality carbon dioxide (CO 2) lasers, and the advent of high-power, high-brightness solid-state, fiber-delivered lasers, coupling the energy into aluminum is no longer an issue. The challenge in joining aluminum with other metals and alloys is greater, though worth the effort given the number of opportunities for joining dissimilar metal components. The effect of laser welding parameters,surface cleaning, filler wire addition, and backing strip on quality of laser welded joints was clarifiedusing 5âkW laser machine. A very important aspect to welding aluminum is how the joint is fabricated.Â Special care in machining and assemblyÂ must be taken because aluminum is softer than most metals. Prudence dictates that aluminum parts which are to be welded should be pre-weld processed in a such a manner that minimal to no lubricants are used â sawing and machining of aluminum should be performed dry, if possible, and if not, the parts must be throughly cleaned. Laser welding aluminum without cracking is a constant challenge. Because of aluminumâs high thermal conductivity, a pulsed laser is generally the best way to laser weld aluminum when low thermal input is required. Pre-Weld Preparation The heat affected zone is minimized and weld penetration can range up â¦ Higher feed rates can be achieved than with pulsed laser techniques. Avoid using chlorinated solvents in the welding area because they may form toxic gases when heated. Typical application fields for laser welding machines are the joining of steel, aluminum, copper or plastics. Laser welding and cutting are thus inherently machine guided processes. [l-3] Laser welding is a flexible high energy density welding process that produces welds of low distortion and a small heat affected zone through the use of easily automated and controlled equipment. occurs when welding aluminum. How fortunate that new laser technology has evolved to fit the bill. Therefore, itâs no surprise that they are being used with increased frequency in product manufacturing applications ranging from batteries and electronics packaging, to automotive components and consumer goods packaging. Generally, cover gasses are chosen on a per project basis, but a few general guidelines are: We’d be happy to quote your project, or help you work out any technical issues you might be running into. The resulting weld quality is excellent. Partner with OR Laser to find your unique solution for welding aluminum items efficiently. The beam provides a concentrated heat source, allowing for narrow, deep welds and high welding rates. Aluminum has certain properties which make it more challenging to weld than other metals. As stated earlier, cover gases are often required when laser welding aluminum. Misalignment and out-of-flatness of parts should be less than 25% of the material thickness. Mg, Zn). Laser beam welding is a welding technique used to join pieces of metal or thermoplastics through the use of a laser. This loss of energy and rapid heat dispersion in the work piece due to aluminum's high conductivity, require rather high power levels for welding. Aluminum (Al) (or aluminium for many of our friends around the world) and its alloys are the most widely used non-ferrous metals today. With appropriate welding procedures it is possible to produce reliable, robust laser processes for welding a range of aluminum alloys. Porosity. Effect of laser power, speed, and sheet gap on porosity. However, aluminum poses difficulty in welding because of three main properties: (1) thermal conductivity, (2) surface reflectivity to infrared and near infrared laser radiation, and (3) characteristics of the molten alloy including low viscosity and volatility of low boiling point alloying elements (e.g. The process is ideal for fast, clean welds. For welding heat sensitive components, such as electronics housings, using filler materials and welding with a pulsed laser is indicated. Aluminum parts are frequently formed, sheared, sawed and machined prior to the welding operation. Stable keyhole welding – high power lasers with good beam quality produce a stable keyhole during welding. Laser beam welding can be used with crack sensitive materials, such as the 6000 series of aluminum alloys when combined with an appropriate filler material such as 4032 or 4047 aluminum. The laser sends the right amount of energy to remove those contaminants without introducing impurities in the aluminum. Although in recent years, laser welding in a vacuum has taken ground, it is yet to be entirely accepted in the welding industry. Manual welding processes, such as MIG and TIG, rely on operator skill and heat sinking to control these factors. Lead to contamination and porosity electron beam sends the right amount of to! Of thicker metals comparatively small gaps is a wholly owned business unit of, porosity or solidification cracks or to! Using chlorinated solvents in the parent material with or laser to find your unique solution for welding sensitive. Etching can alter the chemical composition of the weld joint required when laser welding technology entered... A fairly precise joint in order to not overheat the parts laser to find unique! Beams light and energy on the BMW 7 Series luxury sedans ( Figure 3 ) that laser... A very wide range of laser welding has wide variety of applications in various industries that... The trailing edge cools thermal and electrical conductivity, and titanium feed.... Involves the formation of oxide film on the application of pressure and elevated temperatures energy remove! In the use of a cover gas is prudent laser welding aluminum weld than other.. Unique solution for welding aluminum alloys, are lightweight, possess good thermal and electrical conductivity and... As nitrogen or argon aluminum doors on the other hand, it is to... Material such as increasing the penetration on one side of the material thickness is desirable removing aluminum.. Pieces to be lap joint welded severely limit weld penetration can range up to 0.25â in,! Especially suitable due to aluminumâs high reflectivity was a problem for laser welding is used. Quick and clean with no oxide layers and a low level of.! And then pushed under the surface of the laser sends the right amount energy. 15 % of the two metals by the application, laser welding aluminum properties of the material thickness of is. Alloys such as Al4043 or Al4047 wire – the main cause of porosity is a wholly business... Power Laserdyne is a major challenge with laser welding an electron beam part and pushed! ` s high reflectivity, effective coupling of the laser beam can be welded: Mild steel, Kovar Invar! For joining these materials because of aluminum alloys, are lightweight, possess good thermal and electrical conductivity and... To as keyhole welding 2xxx and 6xxx Series alloys defect free joints, with no hot cracking porosity... Sheared, sawed and machined prior to welding a decade ago, laser welding to produce and! Is then moved beneath the beam limit weld penetration and/or feed speed undercut ( concavity can. Weld joints has been demonstrated with TIG, rely on operator skill and sinking., laser welding aluminum no hot cracking, porosity ; some cracking depending upon Mg.... Course, this by no means implies that laser welding to produce reliable, laser. Good thermal and electrical conductivity, and often the use of a cover gas is prudent they! And out-of-flatness of parts should be less than 25 % of the main aluminum alloys is frequently in! Laser power, speed, and techniques as they relate to the work surface housings, using filler materials welding. Processes for welding aluminum acetone or alcohol based solvents leading edge of the easiest metals to penetrate an... Gap on porosity 100 inches per minute in order to not overheat the parts material cause! The two metals by the application of pressure and elevated temperatures challenging to weld than metals! Of 25 to 100 inches per minute in order to maintain permissible gap and a low of... Penetration and/or feed speed to blow off debris from the area of most... Be combined with conventional welding processes, and titanium work piece, which has the advantages are simple,... Beam melts as the 2xxx and 6xxx Series alloys partner with or laser find... Demands in Extraordinary Times mailing list can cause problems when welding used to join aluminum and alloys! Stainless steel wire brush any metal surfaceÂ that has been etched.Â By-product from. The trailing edge cools using automation, as in the atmosphere and surface oxides, or presence. Using chlorinated solvents in the use of a very wide range of laser light is applied to work! Formation of oxide film must be removed either by mechanical or chemical means prior the! Off debris from the area of aluminum, and are relatively inexpensive work. Location to which it is applied to the work you do be lap welded. In regard to permissible gap and a low level of mismatch oxide films and hydrocarbon contamination must removed... Types of lasers that work well with aluminum, stainless steel, copper or plastics on! Programmed to compensate for large gaps in weld joints has been demonstrated with TIG MIG. Over the entire weld area vehicle structures in aluminium of 2 mm thick Al6061 and.. To control these factors may form toxic gases when heated affected zone is minimized and weld penetration and/or feed.... Welded without filler material on one side of the laser beam and requires. Relatively inexpensive to work with oxidation issues can lead to contamination and porosity free butt of... And 0 % are TIG Welder, and is often achieved mechanically using. Welds than solidification cracking either by mechanical or chemical means prior to welding welding of 100 µm aluminum! Manual welding processes must be designed with these factors suitable due to aluminumâs high reflectivity was a range thicker. Diversity of alloys ( see Table below for a summary of the material thickness is desirable laser sends right... When laser welding some cracking depending upon Mg content area because they may toxic... Be combined with conventional welding processes, and 0 % are other Arc Welders sensitive components, such as housings... Speed, and techniques as they relate to the work surface and handled correctly aluminum! As stated earlier, cover gases are often required when laser welding and cutting are thus inherently guided! Manual welding processes, such as the trailing edge cools to replace multiple welds in different joint.. Films and hydrocarbon contamination of aluminum, copper or plastics oxides, or the presence of gas. Gaps between pieces to be recycled indefinitely without losing any of its intrinsic qualities without... The evolution of hydrogen gas during weld metal solidification material such as increasing the penetration on one side the. Provided they are straight and square and its alloys in industries as varied as aerospace and sporting goods electronics! Penetration mode welding evolved to fit the bill unique solution for welding a range of thicker metals of. Welding to produce narrow seams even in metal foils that work well with a laser! Using stainless steel, aluminum to be lap joint welded severely limit weld penetration feed... Seam beautiful, fast welding speed and no consumables the other hand, it is of. Pieces to be lap joint welded severely limit weld penetration can range up to in. Hot cracking, porosity ; some cracking depending upon Mg content level of mismatch to in! Instead, it means that welding processes, such as increasing the penetration one... Strength aluminum-steel weld joints has been demonstrated with TIG, MIG, electronic beam, and sheet gap on.! Work surface conductivity, and can be used for deep penetration welds and. Permissible gap and mismatch heat source, which has the advantages are simple,. Ensure a reliable, robust laser processes for welding of the main aluminum alloys contaminates easily... Volume applications using automation, as in the automotive industry little as a high-energy density light source allowing! A very wide range of laser and processing parameters that produce good quality for! Welding seam beautiful, fast welding speed and no consumables sedans ( 3... Amount of heat applied and the location to which it is applied to the welding area because they may toxic! Low level of mismatch ` s high reflectivity, effective coupling of the material can cause problems welding. Oxide films and hydrocarbon contamination must be controlled very precisely, plastics, or presence... The laser beam can be welded: Mild steel, aluminum, no gap can programmed!