This result may be attributed to the low level of education among the participants. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Examples are “I believe I can control my diabetes” and “my medicine would make me feel better” assessed on a 5-point scale of strongly disagree to strongly agree. This particular model of diabetes education involves four different components. Besides, this report was limited to diabetes knowledge and health beliefs using HBM and so did not give room to examining cultural beliefs affecting diabetes management among the studied population. How do individuals perceive developing problems due to diabetes, for example, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia? the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Evidence-based information on health belief models and adherence from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. The bivariate result showed that 35% and 64% of those with low and high perceived benefits, respectively, had poor diabetes management status, whereas 65% and 36% of those with low and high perceived benefits of following biomedical recommendations, respectively, had good diabetes management status. Using the same method described above, participants’ responses were scored, ranked, and classified as good or poor and high or low. The respondents were approached as they came in to see their doctors or to have a blood glucose test. The association between diabetes knowledge and diabetes management supports a study that has demonstrated that increased glycemic control is associated with higher scores of diabetes knowledge (Colleran, Starr, & Burge, 2003). (1987) found that measures of health beliefs accounted for 41% to 52% of the self-reported adherence and that perceived severity and perceived benefits were associated with greater self-reported adherence and metabolic control. Populations facing great diabetes burdens and risks need to seek support from the Community Based Diabetes Self-Management Education Health Promotion Program. Preferred Gait Characteristics in Young Adults in Qatar: Physiological... Young Migrants’ Experiences and Conditions for Health: A Photovoice St... Hi-Fi, Middle Brow? dKЭ›%»leç|˜:sP}¼Î]û8Ÿ*PÜ¢¾™×H]”M˜ZºTæÄ¥öÉkÃ\[email protected]¯ºùë6TßG±+Äí‰Ñ*LJ#Z{º)߇®=u÷/Aº¶–8À/zïußGJ"eȀjB¼Ò`âà,ªÿëñ0D=ÙR1ʏ@Ésl ^ʅI ²EWF¿‚z~½©‡ŒO Ü?Õ/Aým˜ÌX`”é[Æéç¦ÿgF Ÿ¤Zp°•AvWÓêÓ¯‹. þhÇinúc×ß{ÎÛdb¸äu,Rõ®kv¶S Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. The health belief model (HBM), developed by Becker and Maiman (1975), is useful in explicating self-care activities such as diabetes management recommendations and has a focus on behavior related to the prevention of disease. Figure 3 shows how planners can use the health belief model to develop interventions to address obesity to avoid diabetes. The prevalence rate in Nigeria varies from one location to another, for example, 0.65% in rural Mangu village to 11.0% in urban Lagos. The first component is perceived benefits. (, Chinyere, H. N., Nandy, B., Nwankwo, B. O. FundingThe author(s) received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article. Search results Jump to search results. Welcome to the Health Belief Model! The instruments were in-depth interview guide and questionnaire, which was either self-administered or interview administered, depending on the literacy level of the respondent. Arseneau, Mason, Wood, and Green (1994) have found that illness-specific knowledge is one component of effective self-management, whereas Hill-Briggs (2003) and Lorig et al. There was a significant positive relationship between perceived severity (0.549, p = .000), perceived benefits (12.383, p = .000), and diabetes management. Although diabetes knowledge and health belief are beliefs on diabetes management among the igala, nigeria. The Igala are an ethnic group in Kogi east, Nigeria. The low level of diabetes knowledge found in this study compares relatively with other studies on diabetes knowledge by Fitzgerald et al. Lean Library can solve it. World Health Organization (2004) estimated that there were 1.71 million people living with diabetes in Nigeria and the figure was projected to reach 4.94 million by the year 2030. This may be related to the perceived susceptibility of health belief, particularly the assertion that knowledge of the complications of diabetes may lead to taking the necessary preventive measures. Moreover, the Health Belief Model deals only with personal perceptions such as perceived risk and perceived cost and thus is too subjective for application. The health belief model was created in the 1950s by social scientists who wanted to understand why few people responded to a … So the generalization of these findings must be with caution. Four items assessed perceived severity on a 5-point scale, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The Health Belief Model Of People With Type 2 Diabetes 789 Words4 Pages Boskey (2014) concludes that a person’s willingness to change their health behaviors includes perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers, and cues to action and self-efficacy. Significant relationship existed between level of diabetes knowledge and diabetes management (1, N = 152) = 8.456, p = .004. I have read and accept the terms and conditions. For the illiterate respondents, the questionnaire was transcribed from English to the Igala language and back to English by experts in spoken and written Igala. The statistics showed that there was a significant relationship between perceived benefits and diabetes management (1, N = 152) = 12.383, p = .000. male patient educated up to pdc suffering from diabetes for the last 10 years and the health promotion model. Relative Influence of Diabetes Knowledge on Diabetes Management Status. A., Mullen, P. D., Green, L. W. (, Jabbar, A., Contractor, Z., Ebrahim, M. A., Moahmood, K. (, Kamal, A., Biessels, G. J., Duis, S. E. J., Gispen, W. H. (, Lorig, K., Steward, A., Ritter, P., Gonzalez, V., Luarent, D., Lynch, J. Diabetes Knowledge, Health Belief, and Diabetes Management Among the Igala, Nigeria, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/openaccess.htm, Baumann, Opio, Otim, Olson, and Ellison (2010), Nyenwe, Odia, Ihekwaba, Ojule, and Babatunde (2003), Jabbar, Contractor, Ebrahim, & Moahmood, 2001, Ayele, Tesfa, Abebe, Tilahun, and Girma (2012), Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine: A Test of the Health Belief Model, College Men and Women and Their Intent to Receive Genital Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors Among Nurses Based on the Health Belief Model Constructs. The study examined the association and influence of diabetes knowledge, diabetes beliefs, and diabetes management, including self-report to following physician’s recommendations. For example, most individuals are very aware that obesity often leads to the development of diabetes. (1996) identify other components to include behavioral skills, cognitive problem-solving abilities, and a sense of efficacy in bringing these capabilities to bear to affect disease outcome. Login failed. The model is based on the theory that a person's willingness to change their health behaviorsis primarily due to the following factors. This model can be very useful in designing health promotion programming. This study was not an experimental design and was limited to self-report of the respondents. These concepts were proposed to account for people’s “readiness to act.” An added concept, cues to action, would activate that readiness and stimulate overt behavior, while the concept of self-efficacy, or one’s confidence is the ability to successfully perform an action. In this example, the interventions are aimed at These were used to measure the diabetes knowledge and beliefs about diabetes from those with the condition. His area of specialization is medical sociology. Samuel Ojima Adejoh lectures in the Department of Sociology, University of Lagos, Nigeria, at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. endstream endobj 56 0 obj 1540 endobj 57 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 56 0 R >> stream The mean of the four items served as the measure of perceived benefits (M = 17.16, SD = 2.20). Table 6. Relative Influence of Health Belief on Diabetes Management. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. The Health Belief Model The Health Belief Model is a tool that is used to predict different health behaviors in a person. Despite the tremendous success at improving the lives of those living with diabetes with technological breakthrough in biomedical sciences, the management of type 2 diabetes lies largely with those with diabetes. Besides, 34% were civil servants, 18% were self-employed, 14% were retirees, and 15% were not in any paid employment, whereas 12% were house wives. About 59% did not know the effect of eating food that contains less fat, 18% said that it decreased the risk of kidney problem, whereas about 15% asserted that it decreases the risk for heart diseases. The data were analyzed using SPSS. This result supports Adejoh’s (2011) claim that, among the Igala, there is a strong belief in Igala medicine in curing all kinds of diseases. The health belief model (HBM)) is a social psychological health behavior change model developed to explain and predict health-related behaviors, particularly in regard to the uptake of health services. This deals with how inconvenient the regimen is perceived to be, for example, how much will it cost a patient to buy the drugs for a month considering other responsibilities before the patient. The respondents were selected from seven hospitals owned by governments, private individuals, and faith-based organizations that served as both out-patient and in-patient clinics. The Health Belief Model (HBM) identified five basic dimensions as a basis for behaviour: perceived severity of the condition, perceived susceptibility or vulnerability to the disease process, perceived benefits (belief in efficacy), costs/barriers, and cues to action, which may be internal (symptoms) or external (health education, illness of family or friend) [22, 23]. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which treatment beliefs and health behaviors predict diabetes health outcome as measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, blood pressure, and lipid profile. Diabetes Care 1980 Sep; 3 … Hence, the hypothesis that stated that perceived susceptibility to complications of diabetes will motivate the individual to follow doctor’s recommendations was rejected. There are no data on the incidence and prevalence of diabetes among the Igala except the national prevalence rate of 3.9 %, as estimated by the International Diabetes Federation (2009) for Nigeria. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. Although... Read Summary. Higher scores indicated the ability of the patient to control his or her diabetes. This finding is in line with the study by Bautista-Martinez et al. However, it is hoped that the findings from this study will stimulate further studies on diabetes knowledge, health beliefs, and diabetes management in Nigeria, with particular focus on cultural beliefs in relation to diabetes health beliefs. The DKT consisted of 7 items administered to the respondents. The result shows that statistically there is no relationship between the aggregate health belief and diabetes management. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics and diabetes knowledge test (DKT) and diabetes HBM developed by Given, Given, Gallin, and Condon (1983), on perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. A convenient sample of 152 men and women living with diabetes who met the selection criteria and agreed to participate in this study constituted the participants for the study. The respondents’ mean age was 56. The implication of the finding is that diabetes knowledge is an important factor on how patients will follow their management plan but should not be seen as an end in itself. SAGE Publications Inc, unless otherwise noted. This Model has been useful to explain noncompliance, to make an "educa tional diagnosis," and for designing compliance-enhancing interventions. Table 2 above shows that 49% of the participants had low diabetes knowledge, whereas 51% had high diabetes knowledge. HBM-Diabetes Studies In her study of adherence to a diet regimen for diabetes, Alognals ex-amined the attitudes and behavior of 50 obese, noninsulin-dependent adult diabetics attending the Diabetic Clinic of Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia.Forty-six of the pa- For the present study, the health beliefs related with diabetes management were perceived severity and perceived benefits. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? The Health Belief Model and Self-Care Behaviors amo ng Type 2 Diabetic Patients Hossein Vazini 1, Majid Barati 2* Introduction D iabetes is the most common important metabolic disease. The result further shows that there was an association between level of diabetes knowledge and diabetes management status (1, N = 152) = 8.456, p = .004. Table 5 shows that 40% and 56% of those with low and high perception of susceptibility to diabetes complications had poor diabetes management status, respectively, compared with 60% and 44% of those with low and high perception of susceptibility to diabetes complications with good diabetes management. The third variable, benefits, concerns the perception that the diabetes regimen will be effective. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Table 3 reveals that 30 respondents, representing about 41% of those with low level of diabetes knowledge, had good diabetes management, whereas 50 respondents, representing about 64% of those with high level of diabetes knowledge, had good diabetes management status. Similarly, Cerkoney and Hart (1980) found that the combination of the five HBM variables accounted for 25% of the variance in adherence, as measured by self-report in combination with a reactive direct observational procedure. American Diabetes Association, the complications and cost acquired from diabetes can be dramatically reduce if patients are more aware of the potential risk and receive proper health prevention education. Type 2 is a preventable type of diabetes through diet and exercise. Brownlee-Duffeck et al. Regarding taking care of the feet, 32% did not know how to take care of their feet. Such practices include eating a healthy diet, performing physical exercise, taking medication as prescribed, monitoring of blood glucose level, regular clinic visits, and managing stress, among other practices (American Diabetes Association, 2002). (1983), on perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, to measure the beliefs of diabetic patients about their diabetes. While other empirical evidences from other studies suggest that people affected with diabetes often have inadequate knowledge about the nature of diabetes, its risk factors, and associated complications (Jabbar, Contractor, Ebrahim, & Moahmood, 2001; Kamal, Biessels, Duis, & Gispen, 2000). Table 1 below shows that 38% of the respondents could not identify food that contains carbohydrate, and 43% could not identify food with the highest concentration of fat. The respondents rated four items acting as barriers to diabetes management status on a 5-point scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. There could be the problem of recall from the respondents, which might make the reliability of the responses difficult to validate. Rather, other factors, such as socio-demographic characteristics, diabetes knowledge, perception, psychosocial factors, patients’ factors, and cultural beliefs (Arndt et al., 2001; Williams, Whittle, & Gatrell, 2002), will have to be all present to activate the beliefs. Nejad, Wertheim, and Greenwood (2005) found that the best predictors of weight loss were perceived susceptibility and perceived benefits, while perceived benefits of dieting and severity (a measure of how negatively weight gain is perceived) significantly predicted intention to diet. (2003). This model was developed in the 1950s but was upgraded in the 1980s. H‰tWKrä6Ýû]Y9Uc–Hñ§eRYd“/ ‘ØcYRµÔž8Çȉ~ ’j½è àSuy힞—öå×׿Ÿ‘— Declaration of Conflicting InterestsThe author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. To ascertain how many of the respondents scored high (good or satisfactory) or low (bad or poor) on each of the attributes, a norm above which a person was high and below which was low was created by adopting the mean. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. Add this result to my export selection Determinants of antihypertensive adherence among patients in Beijing: application of the health belief model. However, the prevalence rate for Nigeria is put at 3.9% (International Diabetes Federation, 2009). Kathy A Bloom Cerkoney and ; Laura K Hart; Mount Mercy College, Cedar Rapids, and the University of Iowa, College of Nursing Iowa City; Address reprint requests to Kathy A. Bloom Cerkoney, Mount Mercy College, 1330 Elmhurst Drive, N.E., Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52402. The first condition in the Health Belief Model is perceived threat. A psychosocial framework for under standing patient compliance is the Health Belief Model, which is based upon the value an individual places on the identified goal and the likelihood that compliance will achieve that goal. The foundation of the HBM is that individuals will take action to prevent, control, or treat a health problem if they perceive the problem to be severe in nature; if they perceive that the action will yield or produce an expected outcome; and because of the perceived negative consequences of therapy. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. þB©n.TÆ/œSBÙåõãé¥"UUQï±Y3mëçV8qNdîô|3íhÿm7;OÁšðhÏÓ­ˆÎíóC»yETˆA+Òp&áWx¯º!R{/ïÐÍËhÛ©3Ñ­)ÊÂ}缞~6kð©áÏ»)"š†:¸†P©CAÓ¼ÅB$Õ,äE))/5'`Ê´ƒÀ›šÎ¬k{³ãWt¡øõ˜”f¤Ê¿ž¥t3ë}¡°1PQUCõŠT. Four items were used to measure perceived benefits of taking action by the respondents. B., Green, S. E. (, Ayele, K., Tesfa, B., Abebe, L., Tilahun, T., Girma, E. (, Baumann, L. C., Opio, C. K., Otim, M., Olson, L., Ellison, S. (, Bautista-Martinez, S., Aguilar-Salinas, C. A., Lerman, I., Velasco, M., Castellanos, R., Zenteno, E., . Consensus among the health care providers in the communities attests to the low level of diabetes knowledge in the study communities they described the level of diabetes knowledge among the people as shallow. Table 2. This could have implications for how a person will manage his or her condition. .Rull-Rodrigo, J. Type: Systematic Reviews . The mean age support Nyenwe, Odia, Ihekwaba, Ojule, and Babatunde (2003), who state that diabetes is more frequently found in people aged 50 years and above in Nigeria. The first variable, susceptibility, refers to the perception of vulnerability to diabetes and its complications. ƒ»C"füEá´PòL?DZYö]°®/´ˆì¡Úy›sJ/|2S¸ä]žË\×Üxlf{SےO‹ømڒÍ|5Óo7æzʼnƒ€û÷ y#)%NM˜ZÔDoé=/uœÔ¹Ôm¯UN;\—Iï¶÷ÂsbDžü?bW2L©_æ­cÐY&W»'%ö Ïé ™Ëǝ‰0.É}B輺‡y\„.×8Z®©ÃEˆ6ÉÜFÜ6¢Nu8–§þ»¥nkat“¾E9ÌE®.—7ƈ/Ò"så\ç;u›6ÜNæÑ?õÍÑþy…YÝö4(-íS)Ç[Ô*m“ÍñdGËdÂc65¡ù_°yöã"íO‹Œ(•#Ìïώ’õ½ŒvjÇî`Á€'FʽQˆÛ ¹ÛÒ3'$im³ For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. This may be explained by the fact that not all the constructs of HBM will directly affect diabetes management. Type 2 diabetes is said to be positioned to be one of the largest epidemics in human history and one of the major threats to human health in the 21st century (Zimmet, Alberti, & Shaw, 2001). As the findings show, perceived severity and perceived benefits were significantly related to diabetes management. Participants responded to four items about their perceived susceptibility to complications (such as “my diabetes would be worse if I did nothing about it”). Due to its high prevalence, diabetes is considered as a health problem worldwide (1). Chinenye et al. The study only took a convenient sample from one ethnic group in an ethnically diverse region. The study adopted 16 questionnaire items, as developed by Given et al. (2012) and Chinyere, Nandy, and Nwankwo (2010) claimed that most Nigerians with diabetes have suboptimal glycemic control, are hypertensive, have chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, and do not practice self-monitoring of blood glucose. The items were measured on a 5-point scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. (1998) and Murata et al. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. This site uses cookies. A study on illness beliefs and diabetes in Uganda adults identified patients’ limited knowledge about diabetes in general as a major problem in diabetes management (Ujelm & Nambozi, 2008). (, Brownlee-Duffeck, M., Peterson, L., Simonds, J. F., Goldstein, D., Kilo, C., Hoette, S. (, Chinenye, S., Uloko, A. E., Ogbera, A. O., Ofoegbu, E. N., Fasanmade, O. Ayele, Tesfa, Abebe, Tilahun, and Girma (2012) also found that those respondents with high perceived severity of diabetes and less perceived barrier to self-care were more likely to take diabetes self-care. GºæSÜá-Ík%ïãÜôaãæQbBÚ8~ëÙ!ê=tSÔõZ(RÄ +W<=܋OÍeJa¯yå6eÂTé*ÏUìp½p»È,ª‡ašãéT• 3}$`“»á:%iÉ-œx­VÕp€§L{¶…Ç,ù›eÅÞ*3[6î”$ߌ\§«»6µ_à¥T6¶Äµ‚†&ð@¥Ê|þ׶…Íüeà´¨Ûò„PNª¸òϾMèw×ó≋‚sœV+—ÿ±¹Øë%Lç+ˆöÊåÐÛ؇ëÜvzò5'¦—0/½t›òÇ׃Šè¾ðq¯èªú—+—ezü.ÎÃË©dÓ.¯¾è@–áÞ¦Þòq—…yڅÌ%Ë££½®R¿¨Sx–¯7~aœ.pMÁ¸ÞšÂØèÉÓÍ!äEºdH®|¼yöC¡‰ï>k-ûwk/îæęæÇa•Â÷• ÎË&YûSwSI¼ÄnMŠ äZ’0!þͶòʽ¸µèü5Æwû¤$°ˆÑÜUuh&{,ò$°RË]8$ßön6jß$²vS±úW€ Óh The study was conducted between August 2008 and December 2009. Table 4. Diabetes management was measured using self-reports of the respondents on the performance of their physicians’ recommendations on medication, regular blood glucose testing, weight management, eye and foot examination, regular clinic visits, and regular physical exercise. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. the desire to avoid complications of diabetes; but the model does not consider factors responsible for enabling and maintaining preventive behavior over time (Janz, Champion, & Strecher, 2002). Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the association and influence of diabetes knowledge and health beliefs on diabetes management among the Igala in Kogi State, Nigeria. feeling high and low blood sugar) cues the individual associates with taking action. Health Belief Model Of The American Diabetes Association, The Complications And Cost Acquired From Diabetes 767 Words | 4 Pages. Boston (1969) likens the location of the Igala to Poland in Europe, which seems to have been pulled in different directions at different periods. Distribution of Respondents by HBM Variables, Aggregate HBM, and Diabetes Management. Health belief model examples diabetes health psychology quizlet chapter 6 google health mobile mens health workout plan health psychology chapter 4 health 354 health beauty uk health center downtown. (, Colleran, K. M., Starr, B., Burge, M. R. (, Fitzgerald, J. T., Funnell, M. M., Hess, G. E., Barr, P. A., Anderson, R. M., Hiss, R. G., Davis, W. K. (, Given, C. W., Given, B. Table 4 above reveals the relative influence of diabetes knowledge on the management of diabetes. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. Add filter for American Diabetes Association (1) ... BACKGROUND: The Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) are used to explain screening behavior. This enabled ranking as high or low, good or poor. Three broad areas can be identified: (a) preventive health behaviors, which include health promoting (such as diet, exercise) and health-risk (such as smoking) behaviors as well as vaccination and contraceptive practices; (b) sick-role behaviors, which refer to compliance with recommended medical regimens, usually following professional diagnosis of illness; and (c) clinic use, which includes physician visits for a variety of reasons. Table 1 shows that 54% and 46% of those with low and high perceived barriers, respectively, had poor management status, whereas 46% and 59% of those with low and high perceived barriers to following recommendations had good management status. The Health Belief Model and Sexuality Education 4. The regression result showed that diabetes knowledge influenced diabetes management (β = .262, t = 3.328, p = .001) and health beliefs affected diabetes management (β = .07865, t = 2.439, p < .016). To quantitatively capture the degree of agreement to each item by the respondents, the items were scored from the lowest to the highest. Table 1. About 60% of the respondents with low level of diabetes knowledge had poor management status, whereas 36% of those with high level of knowledge had poor management status. In general, studies using the health belief model for diabetic patients show that priority is given foremost to perceived benefits and next to perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers, in that order, for adopting different behaviors. A further analysis in Table 6 shows that health belief (β = .07865, t = 2.439, p < .016) was found to have strong influence on diabetes management. Hence, the hypothesis which states that perceived barrier will impede the individual from following doctors’ recommendations was rejected. 6. . How the Health Belief Model was Developed 3. Major Concepts 2. The main barrier preventing help-seeking was fear of the unknown treatment … This article is part of the following special collection(s): Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Factors leading to non-compliance in elderly patients, Perception of severity of disease and health locus of control in compliant and noncompliant diabetic patients, Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus, Socio-demographic factors, health behavior and late-stage diagnosis of breast cancer in Germany: A population-based study, A comparison of learning activity packages and classroom instruction for diet management of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Self care behavior among patients with diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: The health belief model perspective, Self-care beliefs and behaviors in Ugandan adults with type 2 diabetes, Sociobehavioral determinants of compliance with health and medical care recommendations, The role of health beliefs in the regimen adherence and metabolic control of adolescents and adults with diabetes mellitus, The relationship between the health belief model and compliance of persons with diabetes mellitus, Profile of Nigerians with diabetes mellitus—Diabcare Nigeria study group (2008): Results of a multicenter study, Factors influencing diabetes management outcome among patients attending government health facilities in South East, Nigeria, Putting diabetes to the test: Analyzing glycemic control based on patients’ diabetes knowledge, The reliability and validity of a brief diabetes knowledge test, From “I wish” to “I will.” Social-cognitive predictors of behavioral intentions, Development of scales to measures beliefs of diabetic patients, In diabetes care, moving from compliance to adherence is not enough: Something entirely different is needed, Barriers to regimen adherence among persons with insulin-dependent diabetes, A meta-analysis of studies of the health belief model, Problem solving in diabetes self-management: A model of chronic illness self-management behavior, Standard of knowledge about their disease among patients with diabetes in Karachi, Pakistan, Learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: Interaction of diabetes and ageing, Theory and practical applications of a wellness perspective in diabetes education, Factors affecting diabetes knowledge in type 2 diabetic veterans, Comparison of the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior in the prediction of dieting and fasting behavior, Type 2 diabetes in adult Nigerians: A study of its prevalence and risk factors in Port Harcourt Nigeria, Control to goal of cardiometabolic risk factors among Nigerians living with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Beliefs about health and illness: A comparison between Ugandan men and women living with diabetes mellitus, The relationship between socio- demographic characteristics and dental health knowledge and attitudes of parents with young children, Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. These included “I would have to change too many habits and follow my prescriptions” to “following prescriptions interfere with my normal daily activities.” The mean of the rating was used to measure the perceived barriers (M = 11.88, SD = 2.48); higher scores showed more barriers to diabetes management. Type 2 diabetes is a growing challenge [1] and Oman, a developing country, is experiencing an epidemic [2]. Health belief model, Type-2 diabetes, Education, Diabetes management, Oman Research Article Open Access Introduction The health of Omanis has been dramatically affected by the recent affluence in the country. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. Definition and Rationale for the Health Belief Model, including: 1. 1 ( strongly agree ) planners can use the health Belief Model and Compliance of with! Great diabetes burdens and risks need to seek support from the respondents had low knowledge. 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